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 Children's and Youthful Criminality in the USA Скачать в архиве Скачать
Children's and Youthful Criminality in the USA In 1956 г, in the USA left the book “Youthful criminality” under edition S.Meklelana's Grant. This book represents the collection of articles of the American authors who are engaged in research of a problem of children's and youthful criminality in its various aspects. In the book opinions of responsible statesmen, lawyers, psychiatrists, sociologists, writers, teachers, parents and representatives of other groups of the population at a problem of criminality among minors in the USA are stated. In the present information those opinions which represent the greatest interest for the Soviet reader are short stated only. In particular, considerable interest is caused by sights of some the American authors of the reasons of children's and youthful criminality and about methods with which help, in their opinion, ostensibly it is possible to achieve decrease in growth of criminality among minors in the USA.
 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Скачать в архиве Скачать
Chapter 1 Introduction Exploration - a historical phenomenon. As craft, it is perhaps not the oldest, but surely the second. The variety of views of various historians on the social nature of intelligence and espionage combines them into one - they all agree on the fact that the secret services are at least 33 centuries. More precisely, they were born when the war began. In any military conflict, whether primitive slaughter or the Second World War, in varying degrees, of course, there is a tactical ruse, calculated to deceive the enemy. But in order to deceive and defeat the enemy, you need to know it. As a historical phenomenon, intelligence and espionage, as well as the war in different times takes different forms. Types and characters of scouts and spies change their color depending on the social and political system which they serve. History piled century in his piggy bank.
 British Cuisine Скачать в архиве Скачать
British Cuisine Some people criticize English food. They say it's unimaginable, boring, tasteless, it's chips with everything and totally overcooked vegetables. The basic ingredients, when fresh, are so full of flavour that British haven't had to invent sauces to disguise their natural taste. What can compare with fresh pees or new potatoes just boiled and served with butter? Why drown spring lamb in wine or cream and spices, when with just one or two herbs it is absolutely delicious? If you ask foreigners to name some typically English dishes, they will probably say "Fish and chips" then stop. It is disappointing, but true that, there is no tradition in England of eating in restaurants, because the food doesn't lend itself to such preparation. English cooking is found at home. So it is difficult to a good English restaurant with a reasonable prices. In most cities in Britain you'll find Indian, Chinese, French and Italian restaurants.
 British Homes Скачать в архиве Скачать
There are 22 million homes in Britain — big homes and small homes, old cottages and new buildings, houses and flats. (Americans say "apartment" but British people say "flat"). Many British people love old houses and these are often more expensive than modern ones. They also love gardening and you will see gardens everywhere you go: in towns, villages and out in the country. Some are very small with just one tree and a few flowers. Others are enormous with plenty of flowers and enough vegetables and fruit trees. Two third of the families in Britain own their houses. Millions of these houses are the same with two or three bedrooms and a bathroom upstairs, dining-room and kitchen downstairs. To pay for their house, home owners borrow money from a "building society" and pay back a little every month.
 British Literature Скачать в архиве Скачать
British Literature Great Britain gave the world a lot of talented people. Many famous writers and poets were born and lived in Great Britain. One of the best known English playwrights was William Shakespeare. He draw ideas for his tragedies and comedies from the history of England and ancient Rome. Many experts consider Shakespeare the greatest writer and the greatest playwright in English language. William Shakespeare wrote 37 plays which may be divided into: comedies (such as "A Midsummer Night's Dream"), tragedies (such as "Hamlet", "Othello", "King Lear", "Macbeth") and historical plays (such as "Richard II", "Henry V", "Julius Caesar", "Antony and Cleopatra"). Robert Burns represents the generation of Romantic writers. In his poems he described with love and understanding the simple life he knew. Among his well-known poems are "Halloween", "The Jolly Beggars", "To a Mouse". Lord George Gordon Byron.
 My Week-day Скачать в архиве Скачать
My Week-day I get up at a quarter to seven. I jump out of bed, switch on the radio and do my morning exercises to the radio music. Then I go to the bathroom, wash myself and clean my teeth with, a tooth-brush. This does not take me much time, not more than ten or fifteen minutes. Then I dress and sit down to table to have my breakfast. I usually have a cup of tea or coffee, an egg and bread and butter. After breakfast I go to the technical school. As I live far away, I go by bus or by metro. It takes me more time to go by bus. If I have little time, I go by metro. My lessons begin at 9 o'clock. We have six lessons every day. At a quarter to one we have a lunch hour. As I cannot get home for lunch, I take it at the diningroom of our technical school. For lunch I have meat or fish with potatoes and a cup of strong tea or coffee with a pie. At ten minutes to three the lessons are over, and I go home. When I get home from the technical school, I have dinner.
 British Art, Theatre, Music Скачать в архиве Скачать
There was little pictorial art in England until the great miniaturists of the Tudor epoch. There were portraits on a large scale, but they were in the main, of foreign origin, notably Dutch like Holbein. Then came Hogarth, the first great native painter born at the end of the 17th century, famous for both engravings and oil paintings, he was followed by Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792) famous for his portraits. If Hogarth was the artist of the towns, Gainsborough, contemporary of Reynolds, was the painter of the countryside, frequently the background to his portraits. In a similar tradition was Stubbs, as famous for his portraits of horses as of people. Among the other portraitists of the 18th century were Romney, and Rae-burn. Constable (1776-1837) finally gave landscape painting its importance. Among his near-contemporaries, though a little younger, were William Blake, poet, visionary and painter, and Turner, renowned above all for his naval scenes.
 Customs Service Скачать в архиве Скачать
Chapter I - What is customs? Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting and safeguarding customs duties and for controlling the flow of goods including animals, personal effects and hazardous items in and out of a country. Depending on local legislation and regulations, the import or export of some goods may be restricted or forbidden, and the customs agency enforces these rules. The customs may be different from the immigration authority, which monitors persons who leave or enter the country, checking for appropriate documentation, apprehending people wanted by international arrest warrants, and impeding the entry of others deemed dangerous to the country. A customs duty is a tariff or tax on the export of goods. In the Kingdom of England, customs duties were typically part of the customary revenue of the king, and therefore did not need parliamentary consent to be levied, unlike excise duty, land tax, or other forms of taxes.
 Finanzierung In Deutschland Скачать в архиве Скачать
Fur uns ist Deutschland als Staat mit der hoch entwickelten Wirtschaft sehr interessant, sofern unsere Wirtschaft eine Erfahrung der Existenz unter Marktbedingungen braucht. Die Tatigkeit des Betriebs steht bei der Marktwirtschaft in engen Zusammenhang mit der Finanzierung. Finanzierung wird als Beschaffen und Bereitstellen von Zahlungsmitteln fur betriebliche Zwecke der verschiedensten Art definiert. 1.1.Gliederung der Finanzierungsquellen Die meisten der zu den einzelnen Zeitpunkten im Betrieb fur Auszahlungen gleich welcher Art bereitgestellten Zahlungsmittel stammen in der Regel aus dem Verkauf der betrieblichen Leistungen auf den Absatzmarkten und der Verausserung nicht mehr benotigter – meist materieller – Anlage- und Umlaufguter sowie aus dem fruher Dritten vorubergehend gewahrter Zahlungsmittel.
 My Flat (1) Скачать в архиве Скачать
We have a nice flat in a new block of flats. Our flat is on the fourth floor. It has all modern conveniences: central heating, gas, electricity, cold and hot water, a lift and a chute to carry rubbish down There are three rooms, a kitchen, a bathroom and a hall in our flat. The living-room is the largest and most comfortable room in the flat. In the middle of the room we have a square-table with six chairs round it. To the right of the dinner-table there is a wall-unit which has several sections: a sideboard, a wardrobe and some shelves. At the opposite wall there is a piano and stool before it. Between the two large windows there is a little table with a colour TV set on it. Near the TV set there are two cosy armchairs. A small round table, a divan-bed and a standard lamp are in the left-hand corner. This small table is for newspapers and magazines. My father is used to having a rest sitting on this divan-bed reading books, newspapers, magazines or watching TV.
 English Has no Equals! Скачать в архиве Скачать
English Has no Equals! On the 5th of September 1977, the American spacecraft Voyager One blasted off on its historic mission to Jupiter and beyond. On board the scientists who knew that Voyager would one day spin through distant star systems had installed a recorded greeting from the people of the planet Earth. A brief message in fifty-five different languages for the people of outer space plays a statement from the Secretary-General of the United Nations an Austrian named Kurt Waldheim, speaking on behalf of 147 member states in English. The rise of English is a remarkable success story. When Julius Caesar landed in Britain nearly two thousand years ago, English did not exist. Today English is used by at least 750 million people, and barely half of those speak it as a mother tongue. Some estimates have put that figure closer to one billion. Whatever the total, English today is more widely spoken and written, than any other language has ever been.
 The Subjects We Do at School Скачать в архиве Скачать
The Subjects We Do at School. My Favourite Subject (1) We did quite a lot of subjects at school. They were: Physics, Mathematics, Biology, Russian Literature, Chemistry, English, History of this country and many other subjects. It was rather difficult to go to school when a school-leaver, we had so much to do. I know that all the subjects are important and they all must be payed much attention to, but still I didn't like exact sciences. I spent much time on doing them at home. However hard I tried, all those formulas and definitions were mixed up in my head and I couldn't make it out after all. So I had nothing to do but sit for two or three hours swotting Physics, Chemistry and Maths. My favourite subjects were Literature, History, English. Most of all I liked English. I read English books, tried to translate some stories from newspapers from English into Russian and vice versa.
 My School (1) Скачать в архиве Скачать
My School (1) As you become older you realize that there are several essential things and places you always long to come back to. They are your birthplace, your home and the school you went to. My school was a three-storeyed building situated in one of the residential districts of our city (town, settlement). All the children from the neighbourhood went there because it was a walking distance from their homes. There was a sports ground behind the school-building and a green lawn with flower-beds in front of it. The school was built a few years ago. That's why its classrooms were light and spacious. There were three large windows in each classroom with flower pots on the windowsills. It was pupils' (especially girls') responsibility to water the flowers. And they did it with utmost care. There were maps and portraits, tables and charts on the walls of the classrooms. Our classroom was on the second floor. Its windows faced the school-yard.
 About My Family Скачать в архиве Скачать
About My Family My family is not very big, just a typical family: Dad, Mom, me, my brother and sister and our cat. My Mummy is fortyone, she is a teacher of Spanish at the University. She is a born teacher. She has teaching abilities. My Dad is forty-two, he is a professional painter, he works for a design company. My parents both like their work very much. My elder sister Natasha is nineteen, she goes to the University, she wants to be a teacher of history. She is fond of reading books on history and fiction. My younger brother Igor is only six years old, he goes to the kindergarten. He is very funny, I like to spend my free time teaching him something. Igor likes to play with our cat. My grandparents are retired. They like gardening. They spend a lot of their time in the garden. They grow vegetables and fruits. We enjoy having fresh vegetables and green on our dinner table. I love my family very much. We always help each other.
 About Myself Скачать в архиве Скачать
About Myself First of all let me introduce myself. My name is Taras. I'm seventeen years old. I'm at 11-th grade. There are two more kids in the family besides me — my elder brother Oleg and my younger sister Marija. Oleg is twenty-one, he attends a University, he will be a dentist. Marija is only twelve, she is a schoolgirl. I forgot to mention one more member of our family. It's our favourite poodle Tim. My parents are not old at all. My Mum is forty, she works for a newspaper. My Dad is forty-four, he is an engineer in computers. My parents love their jobs very much. I'm doing quite well at school. My parents are proud of my marks. I go in for sports. I play basket-ball. In summer time I like yachting and windsurfing. I take part in different basket-ball competitions. In a year I shall finish my school and I have to decide what occupation to choose. I have been studying English for seven years. I want to be a military interpreter. My grandparents are already retired.
 Yuri Gagarin — a Modern Columbus Скачать в архиве Скачать
Yuri Gagarin — a Modern Columbus April 12, 1961 will never be forgotten. On that day Yuri Alexeyevich Gagarin was launched into space. He circled the globe in the spaceship "Vostok" for 108 minutes. Gagarin was taking an enormous risk, because at that time nobody knew how a human being would stand up to space flight. Before Yuri Gagarin was launched into outer space he met the people who had prepared the rocket. He thanked them for their work and said he would do everything he could to make his flight successful. Yuri was in great spirits. The cosmonauts spent the evening at a cottage which is now called the Yuri Gagarin Memorial Cottage. Then he had one more normal working day which was worked out to the minute: morning exercises, breakfast, medical examination, putting on the spacesuit, checking the suit, leaving for the launching site and so on. Yuri Gagarin's flight opened the door into the Universe Those 108 minutes were a turning-point in history.
 Architecture Скачать в архиве Скачать
Architecture Architecture the art of building in which human requirements and construction materials are related so as to furnish practical use as well as an aesthetic solution, thus differing from the pure utility of engineering construction. As an art, architecture is essentially abstract and nonrepresentational and involves the manipulation of the relationships of spaces, volumes, planes, masses, and voids. Time is also an important factor in architecture, since a building is usually comprehended in a succession of experiences rather than all at once. In most architecture there is no one vantage point from which the whole structure can be understood. The use of light and shadow, as well as surface decoration, can greatly enhance a structure. The analysis of building types provides an insight into past cultures and eras.
 Atomic Bomb Скачать в архиве Скачать
Atomic Bomb Atomic bomb [atomic bomb] or A-bomb, weapon deriving its explosive force from the release of atomic energy through the fission (splitting) of heavy nuclei (see nuclear energy ). The first atomic bomb was produced at the Los Alamos, N.Mex., laboratory and successfully tested on July 16, 1945. This was the culmination of a large U.S. army program that was part of the Manhattan Project , led by Dr. Robert Oppenheimer . It began in 1940, two years after the German scientists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman discovered nuclear fission. On Aug. 6, 1945, an atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima with an estimated equivalent explosive force of 12,500 tons of TNT, followed three days later by a second, more powerful, bomb on Nagasaki . Both bombs caused widespread death, injury, and destruction, and there is still considerable debate about the need to have used them.
 New York City Скачать в архиве Скачать
New York City City and port located at the mouth of the Hudson River, southeastern New York state, northeastern U.S. New York City is the centre of the largest urban agglomeration in the United States. It occupies Manhattan and Staten islands, the western end of Long Island, a portion of the mainland, and various islands in New York Harbor and Long Island Sound. Its urban area extends into neighbouring parts of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. New York City is an ethnic melting pot where the most dramatic cultural contrasts are commonplace. It is among the most geographically and demographically complex of world cities, its economy one of the most diverse, and its cultural scene among the richest and most variegated. A brief treatment of New York City follows. For full treatment, see New York City.
 The Old Arbat street, Moscow Скачать в архиве Скачать
The Old Arbat street, Moscow The Old Arbat is a picturesque pedestrian street in Moscow, running west from Arbat Square (which is part of the Boulevard Ring) towards Smolenskaya Square (which is part of the Garden Ring). The Old Arbat has the reputation of being Moscow's most touristy street, with lots of entertainment and souvenirs sold. It is distinct from the New Arbat, a street running parallel to it and lined with Soviet skyscrapers made of steel, concrete, and glass. The first mention of the Arbat was in 1493 as a road leading from the Moscow Kremlin to Smolensk. The origin of the name is Tatar and means suburb (the same as Rabat). During the 16th and 17th centuries, the neighbourhood was graced with elegant churches, notably the one featured in Vasily Polenov's celebrated painting A Courtyard in Moscow (1879). In the 18th century, the Arbat came to be regarded by the Russian nobility as the most prestigious living area in Moscow.
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